Let’s take a whirlwind tour through some of the most popular technologies being used online today.
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HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
HTML is not functional – it does not do anything, like manipulate data or do maths. The purpose of HTML is to describe the content of a web page, so that it can be interpreted properly. The two most important things that need to interpret web pages are web browsers and search engines. HTML helps to communicate important and varied information, from what the title of the web page is, to what is text and what is images, and what is a link and where it links to.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
CSS, like HTML, is not functional (except in a superficial but visually awesome way – CSS3 does cater for some animations). It is used to define the styling of a website in an easy and efficient way. A CSS file allows a web designer to specify such rules as the colour of a link, the width of a content area or the border around images in just one place, and then reference those rules on any number of web pages, making updates incredibly easy.
XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
XML, like HTML, describes data. Unlike HTML it does not have a finite number of predefined tags with which to describe things – you can create your own. What is important to know is that this means that different applications, different services, and different programming languages can share data. As long as each application or service knows what the XML tags mean, data can be shared between two completely different systems, written by different people in different programming languages.
SQL (Structured Query Language)
A language used to access and edit databases. Commonly used database systems online include MySQL and PostgreSQL which are both open source, and Microsoft SQL server. Almost all dynamic websites and web applications utilise databases to store information. SQL is a common language used to store, edit and retrieve the information from these databases.
Java is a big boy, often used for enterprise level development. .NET, C# and ASP.NET are all Microsoft technologies (which means you have to pay to use them), and are also often used for enterprise level development. PHP, Ruby and Python are all modern open source favourites for creating web applications and dynamic websites of all sizes. Perl is these days often used for more nitty gritty tasks such as CGI programming. ActionScript is the programming language of Flash, and used heavily in sites that require full and extensive animation.
‘Web Frameworks’ is a fairly generic phrase, that could refer to a number of different things, but most commonly it refers to a bunch of pre-written code that is paired with an existing programming language. This pre-written code includes lots of commonly found structures and functionalities in web applications, such as administration panels and membership functionalities, as well as architectural structures, such as distinctions between the logic of the applications and the rendering of the actual web pages. Some popular web frameworks include Rails for Ruby, Cake for PHP, Django for Python and Apache Struts for Java.
Well, that’s all for now. Understanding a broad overview of how different technologies are used to create websites and applications is becoming more and more essential in a growing number of businesses and professions. Hopefully, this was a good starting point.